> 7 =LbjbjUU k7|7|El4B+++h(,D,4BR--@---///`RbRbRbRbRbRbR$S UVR/."///R5--3R555/8--`R5/`R5:5;HLL-x-ZVBB~(+10KPLLR0RKPIV5(IVLL5BBContent Reading
Topic: Selecting and Using Appropriate Teaching Methods for the Classroom.
Goal: Teachers will identify a number of different teacher-centred and student-centred teaching methods. Teachers will select and implement methods which are most appropriate for specific learning objectives, teacher characteristics, student characteristics and the classroom setting.
In brief:
Content Reading
Specific Teaching Methods
How do I decide which teaching method to use?
Group Activity
Examples of each teaching method
Task Sheet
Find the Appropriate Method
Trainers Guide
Introduction
Explain that, over the next 3-4 days, we will be looking at a variety of specific teaching methods. Each method has its own specific purpose for student learning. Teachers will learn to identify which method is most suitable for a specific learning objective and for the students level and ability.
Review:
Trainer asks a number of questions to ensure that trainees have understood the two general teaching methods categories (teacher-centred and student-centred) that were learned in yesterday's workshop.
Trainer reviews the list of advantages/disadvantages for the two general categories that was created in yesterday's workshop.
Trainer asks trainees to read 'Content Reading: Specific Teaching Methods'. After a period of time, the trainer should read through this Content Reading with the entire group. The trainer should ask for and give examples that will clarify each specific teaching method. GO THROUGH THE CHART SLOWLY!!
Trainer then asks trainees to get into groups of 5-6 people. Each group is asked to do the 'Group Activty: Examples of Each Teaching Method'. While groups are working on the activity, the trainer should move throughout the room and offer help to each group.
When groups have completed the activity, have groups read their examples. The first group read their example of Lecture method, then the next group read their example of Lecture-recitation, and so on until there has been one example for each method. After each example, the entire group should discuss the merit of the example.
Deciding on which teaching method to use
Individually, trainees complete Task Sheet: Find the Appropriate Method
Then, trainees get into groups of 4-5 people and discuss each others task sheets.
Groups must decide on one set of correct answers.
Groups present their answers to the entire group.
Everyone is encouraged to challenge each others ideas. Trainer should ask questions to help trainees to agree on the correct answers.
Trainer asks the group:
Will every method be equally useful for each subject area and standard level? If not, why?
Trainer elicits that certain methods will be more useful depending on the subject area and standard level. Each method has a specific advantages for student
Trainers Guide
learning. Therefore, certain methods will be more useful depending on the purpose of the lesson.
Trainees get into groups of 5-6 perons. Trainer writes the following questions onto the blackboard and asks the groups to answer the questions.
The questions are:
Which methods are most appropriate for primary level students? Why?
Which methods would be better to use in high school than in primary school? Why?
Which method allows the teacher to give the most information in the least amount of time?
Which method would you use if you wanted strong students to help weaker students learn?
Which methods are more appropriate for teaching history than for teaching math?
Which 3 methods would you use to teach Burmese language to standard 5 Karen students?
When groups have finished, the trainer assigns 1-2 questions to each group. Groups present their answers in front of the class. Again, the entire group is encouraged to ask questions and challenge answers.
Trainer reads out loud 'Content Reading: 'How do I decide which method to use?" to the trainees. Then, trainer asks trainees to reread the Content Reading individually.
Using Specific Teaching Methods
Ask each trainee to write one learning objective for their classroom onto a slip of paper. Include the subject area and standard that the objective is for.
Trainer collects all of the objectives.
Trainer asks the trainees to get into groups of 3 persons. Trainer gives each group 1 learning objective (the objectives that were just collected). Trainer writes the following instructions, which the groups are told to answer, on the blackboard:
Choose 3 methods that you would use to achieve the learning objective.
Explain (step by step and specifically) how you would use these methods.
Explain why each method is useful for the subject area.
List the natural learning strategies that students will use for each teaching method.
Explain why each method is appropriate for the age level (or standard level) of the students.
List the materials that you would use to achieve the learning objective.
Trainers Guide
The trainer moves from group to group giving encouragement and answering questions.
When groups have completed, ask each group to read their learning objective, subject area and standard level to the group. Then, present answers to the entire group. Trainer and the rest of the group provide feedback and give suggestions for improvement.
When every group has finished presenting, the trainer should perform 5-6 different, short role plays, illustrating a variety of teaching methods. Each role play should demonstrate 1-2 teaching methods. At the end of each role play, ask trainees which teaching method was being used or illustrated.
Ask trainees to choose a teaching method that they are most comfortable with. Then ask them to think of something (an animal, a fruit, a person, a feeling, anything!) that reminds them or symbolizes for them the teaching method. Trainees are then asked to draw a picture of this something and label the picture with the teaching method. Then, the trainer collects all of the pictures and places them on the wall. Give trainees time to walk around and have a look at each others drawings.
PRACTICE
Ask trainees to get into groups according to the subject and standard that they teach. Each group should have 3-4 persons. Trainer instructs groups to do the following:
Choose a specific learning objective for one lesson in your classrooms.
The lesson should be 10-15 minutes.
Decide on 2-3 teaching methods that are most appropriate for the learning objective, for level and ability of students and for the teacher.
Decide (step by step) what procedure you will use in your lesson.
Choose and find materials that you will need for the lesson.
Prepare to teach your lesson to the entire group.
One by one, each group presents their lesson to the entire group. The entire group are asked to behave like students of the standard and subject being taught. When the lesson is over, the entire group is asked to identify which methods were used in the lesson and what was the learning objective. Then the entire group evaluates the lesson according to the following criteria.
1. Were the teaching methods appropriate for the learning objective?
a. very appropriate b. appropriate c. satisfactory d. inappropriate
2. Were the teaching methods appropriate for the subject area?
a. very appropriate b. appropriate c. satisfactory d. inappropriate
3. Were the teaching methods appropriate for the standard level?
Trainers Guide
a. very appropriate b. appropriate c. satisfactory d. inappropriate
Trainer gives feedback to each group and asks trainees to qualify their evaluations.
When every group has finished presenting their lessons, a vote is taken on the best lesson. A small prize should be awarded to the winning group. Trainer congrajulates all trainees for their excellent effort throughout the workshop. Explain that the workshop has finished. Ask trainees if they have any questions concerning what has been learnt in the workshop. Any comments? Any suggestion?
Goodbye.
Content Reading
Specific Teaching Methods
We know that there are two categories of teaching methods:
teacher-centred
student-centred.
Either of these methods can be used to help student learning. For example, concepts in science can be taught using teacher-centred methods (i.e. Lecture method) or student-centred methods (i.e. Discovery Learning method). From yesterday's workshop, we know that teachers are already using a number of different methods in their classroom.
The following chart shows a number of specific teaching methods from each of the 2 general categories.
METHODDESCRIPTIONAMOUNT OF TEACHER CONTROL
(teachers role)THE STUDENTTeacher-Centred Teaching MethodsLectureteacher stands in the front of the class giving information to students
students listen to teacher and take notesHigh
(teacher prepares leacture and presents information)learns by observing and listening
learn individuallyLecture-recitationteacher presents information to students (Lecture method)
teacher follows-up lecture with a question and answer session, and/or
teacher asks students to repeat the information that was presentedHigh to Moderate
(teacher prepares lecture and responds to student questions)learns by observing, listening, asking and answering questions, repitition
learns individuallyQuestioning (Socratic)Teachers develop a list of questions that they pose to students
these questions 'guide' students to answer questions and find solutions
these questions draw out information from studentsModerate
(teacher prepares questions that will guide student learning and actively repsonds to student answers)learns by talking with an adult, listening, answering questions
learns in groupDemonstrationindividual student stands before the class, shows something and talks about itHigh to Moderate
(teacher directs procedure and questions)listening, discussing, observing
learns individuallyModelingteacher acts or demonstrates desired behavior of students
students learn by copying the actions of the teacherHigh
(teacher shows and directs students to act the same)listening, imitating
learns individually
Content Reading
METHODDESCRIPTIONAMOUNT OF TEACHER CONTROLTHE STUDENTStudent-Centred Teaching MethodsDiscussionsmall groups of students or the entire class interact and talk about a certain topicLow to moderate
(teacher observes and helps students stay on topic)learns by listening, talking, asking questions, solving problems
learns in groupsPanelsmall group of students present and discuss information or research Low
(teacher observes and makes comments)learns by presenting, talking, listening, solving problems, observing
learns in groupsDebatetwo groups of students competitively discuss (debate) a certain topicLow
(teacher observes and facilitates debate)learns by interacting, talking and listening, solving problems, real experiences
learns in groupsRole playingstudents act out roles or situations
students present idea or opinion by acting outLow
(teacher observes and facilitates discussion)learns by doing, by imitating, by real experiences, by observing, by playing
learns in groupsCooperative Learningstudents work in mixed-ability groups on one or more tasks
the focus is what groups (not individuals) can doLow
(teacher helps each group)learns by interacting with other students, by solving problems, by doing
learn in groupsDiscoveryteacher provides procedure to solve problems
students are then given a number of problems which they are to solve by using the procedure given by the teacherLow to moderate
(teacher provides procedure and helps students with problems)learns by doing, through real experiences, by solving problems, by imitating
learns in groups or individuallyInquirystudent decides on his/her own procedure for solving a specificLow
(teacher gives guidance when students ask for help)learns by experimenting, by doing, by solving problems, by investigating
learns individually or in groupsGamesremember that young children learn many many things by playingthis doesn't stop on the first day of school!
games can be used to illustrate or practice certain ideas and conceptsLow
(teacher observes and participates)learns by playing, by observing, by oing, by real experience, by using 5 senses
learns in groupsMastery Learningteacher orgnaizes step by step learning procedure in which students move through at their own pace
student works on one step (or unit) at a time
when student has completed the unit and demonstrates that he/she understands at a high level, then the student proceeds to the next step (unit)
the DEP program is an example of this methodLow to moderate
(teacher creates and organizes learning materialteacher gives support to students)learns by solving problems, by repetition, by asking questions
learns individuallyIndependent Studystudent chooses or teacher gives student a research
student gathers information and presents information
learning is carried out with little guidance from the teacherLow
(teacher supports students individually)learns by doing
learns individually
Group Activity
Examples of Each Teaching Method
Your group should try to give one short real example for each type of teaching method. Try not to use examples that have already been offered in the workshop! Don't be shy to ask the trainer for some help!! Write down the groups idea on this page of your workbook.
TEACHING METHODPROVIDE 1 REAL EXAMPLELecture
Lecture-recitation
Questioning (Socratic)
Demonstration
Modeling
Discussion
Panel
Debate
Role Playing
Cooperative Learning
Discovery
Inquiry
Games
Mastery Learning
Independent Study
Task Sheet
Find the Appropriate Method
Write the number of the example beside the matching teaching method.
1. A Kga teacher wants her students to practice how to cooperate with each other by playing a sharing game.Lecture
2. A standard 10 history class is studying socialism. In groups, students perform skits which demonstrate their opinions about socialism.Lecture-recitation3. Students, working individually, choose a topic of interest, research the topic and then write a report on what they have learned.Questioning-Socratic4. Students present their independent study work to the entire class.Demonstration5. The teacher tells the class about the solar system and then answers student questions.Modeling6. Teacher organizes learning materials and students work through the materials at their own pace.Discussion7. Students are given a problem and asked to find ways to solve the problems.Panel8. A group of students present and/or discuss a specific subject in front of the whole class.Debate9. A teacher shows students how to use scissors by cutting a piece of paper in front of the whole class.Role playing10. Teacher guides student learning by asking them a series of questions.Cooperative learning11. The whole class talks about how alcohol affects families in the village. Sometimes the teacher helps students stay focused on the topic.Discovery12. Students of different abilities and ages work together on 1 or 2 tasks.Inquiry13. Teacher explains a particular math formula and then students are given a number of questions which they answer using the formula.Games14. Two groups of students discuss the advantages and disadvantages of democracy for Karen State. The teacher facilitates the discussion.Mastery learning15. The teacher explains some hygiene principles for 1 hour.Independent study
Content Reading
How do I decide which method to use?
With all of these possible methods, how do I decide which is best? Experience and common sense will help you make your decision. We suggest that teachers think about 4 things when deciding which teaching method to use:
content and objectives of the lesson
teacher characteristics (personal teaching style)
student characteristics (learning strategies, learning styles, stage of development, etc.)
classroom setting and materials
Every lesson must have a purpose. What is the purpose of your lesson? What do you want students to learn? For example, if you are trying to teach problem solving, then the lecture method is not a useful approach.
Every teacher has unique personal experiences, background knowledge, teaching skills and personality that make him/her more comfortable and effective with certain teaching methods than others. Most teachers use teaching methods that have been successful in the past. Because teachers often use methods that they are most comfortable with, it is easy to repeat the same teaching method over and over again. We cannot become comfortable with teaching methods that we have never used or only used a little! Try to experiment with new and different methods!
Each method allows students to learn using their different learning strategies and styles. By using different types of teaching methods, you allow the students to learn using all of their natural learning strategies and learning styles Also, we should use specific methods to match the the maturity level and experiences of your students. You would not use the lecture method with young children or with students who have trouble paying attention (by listening) for long periods of time. Students, like teachers, feel comfortable and learn better when the method matches their abilities, needs, and interests.
We should vary our methods and become skilled in combining various methods into a total lesson strategy.
PAGE
PAGE 214
TEACHING METHODS: Teaching Methods for the Classroom
KAREN TEACHER WORKING GROUP
PAGE
PAGE 214
Teaching methods serve many different purposes. When choosing which methods we will use in the classroom, we should consider the learning objective, the teacher, the student and the classroom setting.
Each teacher has her/his own personal style of teaching. Often teachers feel most comfortable with 2 or 3 methods and as a result use them all of the time. However, teachers should try to include a variety of methods in their lessons so to maximize student learning.
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